Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute)

Overview

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Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide is an odourless, colourless gas, and poisoning causes hypoxia, cell damage, and death. Exposure to carbon monoxide is measured either directly from blood samples and expressed as a percentage of carboxyhaemoglobin, or indirectly using the carbon monoxide in expired breath. Carboxyhaemoglobin percentage is the most frequently used biomarker of carbon monoxide exposure. Although the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning can be confirmed by detecting elevated levels of carboxyhaemoglobin in the blood, the presence of clinical signs and symptoms after known exposure to carbon monoxide should not be ignored. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of oxygen treatments for acute carbon monoxide poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). RESULTS: We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. CONCLUSIONS: In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 100% hyperbaric oxygen, oxygen 28%, and oxygen 100% by non-re-breather mask.

Cite as

Smollin C, Olson K. Carbon monoxide poisoning (acute). Systematic review 2103. BMJ Clinical Evidence. . 2010 October. Accessed [date].

Latest citations

Performance of the RAD-57 pulse CO-oximeter compared with standard laboratory carboxyhemoglobin measurement. ( 24 June 2015 )

Postcards from the EDge: 5-year outcomes of a randomised controlled trial for hospital-treated self-poisoning. ( 24 June 2015 )